Sulfur (S)

General Properties

Symbol S
Atomic Number 16
Atomic Weight 32.065
Group
16 (oxygen family)
VIB (IUPAC), VIA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Insulator, Stable, Natural, Nonmetal
Period 3
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 2.07 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 15.5 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.27 angstroms
Covalent Radius 102 pm
Crust Abundance 0.042%
Crystal Structure Orthorhombic
Color Yellow

Energy

Electronegativity 2.6 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 200 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 1005 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 2252 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 3357 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 4556 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 7004.3 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 8495.8 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 27107 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 31719 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 36621 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 43177 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 48710 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 54460 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 62930 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 68216 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 311048 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 337138 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.71 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 0.269 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States -2
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 6
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿ 
↿ 
3d
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Sulfur (S)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Sulfur (S)
Description
Tasteless, odorless, pale yellow, brittle solid. Tenth most abundant element in the universe.
Uses
Used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Sources
Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from undergound deposits by the Frasch process.
Pronounciation (English)
SUL-fer

Translations

Afrikaans Swael
Aragonese Ixufre
العربية كبريت
Armãneashte Sulfure
asturianu Azufre
azərbaycan dili Kükürd
български Сяра
বাংলা সালফার
brezhoneg Sulfur, Soufr
bosanski Sumpor
Byelorussian Сера
Cebuano Asufre
čeština Síra
Chuvash Кӳкĕрт
Cymraeg Sofre
dansk Svovl
Deutsch Schwefel
Ελληνικά Θειο
English Sulphur/Sulfur
esperanto Sulfuro
español Azufre
eesti Väävel
euskara Sufrea
فارسی گوگرد
suomi Rikki
føroyskt Svávul, Brennisteinur
français Soufre
furlan Solfar
West-Frysk Swevel
Gaeilge Sulfar, ²Grumastal (Grunnastal, Ruibh)
Gàidhlig Sulfar
galego Xofre
ગુજરાતી સલ્ફરનો
Gaelg Sulfur
Hakka Chinese Liù-vòng
עברית גופרית
हिन्दी गन्धक
hrvatski Sumpor
magyar Kén
հայերեն Ծծումբ
Indonesia Belerang
íslenska Brennisteinn
italiano Zolfo
日本語 硫黄
ქართული გოგირდი
کٲشُر Sarka
қазақ тілі Күкірт
한국어
Kurdish Kukurd
Komi Тэг
kernewek Sulfor
кыргызча --
Latin Sulphurium
Lëtzebuergesch Schwiewel
Lombard Zuulf
lingála Sufa
lietuvių Siera
latviešu Sērs
Mari Киш
Maori Pungatara
македонски Сулфур
മലയാളം ഗന്ധകം
монгол Хүхэр
Мокшан Кандур
Bahasa Melayu Sulfur, ²Belerang
Malti Kubrit, ²Żolfu
Nahuatl Tlequiquiztlālli
Nederlands Zwavel
norsk Svovel
Occitan Sofre
ирон Сондон
polski Siarka
português Enxofre
Runasimi Salina, ²Salliy
română Sulf
русский Сера
slovenčina Síra
slovenščina Žveplo
Samoan Sulfimi
Samogitian Siera
shqip Sulfur, ²Squfuri
српски Сумпор
Southern Sotho Sebabole
svenska Svavel
Kiswahili Sulfuri, ²Kibiriti
தமிழ் கந்தகம்
Tajik Сулфур
ไทย กำมะถัน
Türkçe Kükürt
ئۇيغۇرچە گۈڭگۈرت
українська Сірка
o‘zbek Oltingugurt
Tiếng Việt Lưu huỳnh
Võro Väävli
中文

History

Discovered In
Discovered By
Discovered At
Word Origin
From the Sanskrit word "sulvere" meaning "sulphur"; also from the Latin word "sulphurium" meaning "sulphur"