Oxygen (O)

General Properties

Symbol O
Atomic Number 8
Atomic Weight 15.9994
Group
16 (oxygen family)
VIB (IUPAC), VIA (CAS)
Gas, Paramagnetic, Stable, Natural, Nonmetal
Period 2
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 0.00143 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 14.0 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 0.65 angstroms
Covalent Radius 73 pm
Crust Abundance 46%
Crystal Structure Cubic
Color Colorless

Energy

Electronegativity 3.4 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 141 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 1314 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 3388.3 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 5300.5 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 7469.2 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 10989.5 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 13326.5 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 71330 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 84078.0 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.92 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 0.2674 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States -2
Electrons Per Shell 2 6
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p4
1s2 2s2 2p4
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿ 
↿ 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Oxygen (O)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Oxygen (O)
Description
Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; pale blue liquid. Third most abundant element in the universe. It is the most abundant element in the earth's crust, and makes up almost 21% of the atmosphere.
Uses
Used in steel making, welding, and supporting life. Naturally occuring ozone (O3) in the upper atmosphere shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation.
Sources
Obtained primarily from liquid air by fractional distillation. Small amounts are made in the laboratory by electrolysis of water or heating potassium chlorate (KClO3) with manganese dioxide (MnO2) catalyst.
Pronounciation (English)
OK-si-jen

Translations

Afrikaans Suurstof
Aragonese Ocsichén
العربية أكسجين
Armãneashte Oxighenu
asturianu Oxíxenu
azərbaycan dili Oksigen
български Кислород
বাংলা অক্সিজেন
brezhoneg Oksigen
bosanski Kiseonik, ²Kisik
Byelorussian Кісларод
Cebuano Oxígeno
čeština Kyslík
Chuvash Йӳçлĕк
Cymraeg Oxygen
dansk Oxygen, Ilt
Deutsch Sauerstoff
Ελληνικά Οξυγονο
English Oxygen
esperanto Oksigeno
español Oxígeno
eesti Hapnik
euskara Oxigenoa
فارسی اکسیژن
suomi Happi
føroyskt Súrevni, Ilt
français Oxygène
furlan Ossigjen
West-Frysk Soerstof
Gaeilge Ocsaigin
Gàidhlig Ocsaigin
galego Osíxeno
ગુજરાતી ઑક્સીજન
Gaelg Ocsygien
Hakka Chinese Yòng (氧)
עברית חמצן
हिन्दी ऑक्सीजन
hrvatski Kisik
magyar Oxigén
հայերեն Թթվածին
Indonesia Oksigen
íslenska Súrefni, ²Ildi
italiano Ossigeno
日本語 酸素
ქართული ნახშირბადი
کٲشُر Krziseń
қазақ тілі Оттек
한국어 산소
Kurdish Oksîjen
Komi Шомвачужысь
kernewek Oxyjen
кыргызча Кычкылтек
Latin Oxygenium
Lëtzebuergesch Sauerstoff
Lombard Ussògen
lingála Oksijɛ́ní
lietuvių Deguonis
latviešu Skābeklis
Mari Шопештыш
Maori Hāora
македонски Кислород
മലയാളം ഓക്സിജന്‍
монгол Хүчилтөрөгч
Мокшан Шапам, Шапа кожф
Bahasa Melayu Oksigen
Malti Oksiġin, ²Ossiġenu
Nahuatl Ehēcayoh
Nederlands Zuurstof
norsk Oksygen
Occitan Oxigèn
ирон Туаггуыр
polski Tlen
português Oxigénio
Runasimi Muksichaq, ²Wayay, ³Uksihinu
română Oxigen
русский Кислород
slovenčina Kyslík
slovenščina Kisik
Samoan Swaskotriki
Samogitian Degounis
shqip Oksigjen
српски Кисеоник
Southern Sotho Okesejene
svenska Syre
Kiswahili Oksijeni
தமிழ் ஒட்சிசன்
Tajik Оксиген
ไทย ออกซิเจน
Türkçe Oksijen
ئۇيغۇرچە ئوكسىگېن
українська Кисень
o‘zbek Kislorod
Tiếng Việt Oxy, Oxi
Võro Hapasnik
中文

History

Discovered In
1774
Discovered By
Joseph Priestley, Carl Scheele
Discovered At
England, Sweden
Word Origin
From the Greek words "oxy genes" meaning "acid" (sharp) and "forming" (acid former)