Hafnium (Hf)

General Properties

Symbol Hf
Atomic Number 72
Atomic Weight 178.49
Group
4 (titanium family)
IVA (IUPAC), IVB (CAS)
Solid, Conductor, Transition Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 6
Block d

Physical Properties

Density 13.3 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 13.6 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.67 angstroms
Covalent Radius --
Crust Abundance 0.00033%
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Color Gray

Energy

Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 0 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 659 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1440 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 2250 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 3216 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.14 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 23.0 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States 4
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 18 32 10 2
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
4s
↿⇂
4p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
4d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
4f
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
5s
↿⇂
5p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
5d
↿ 
↿ 
 
 
 
5f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6s
↿⇂
6p
 
 
 
6d
 
 
 
 
 
6f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Hafnium (Hf)
Description
Silvery, ductile metal.
Uses
Used in reactor control rods because of its ability to absorb neutrons.
Sources
Obtained from mineral zircon or baddeleyite.
Pronounciation (English)
HAF-ni-em

Translations

Afrikaans Hafnium
Aragonese Hafnio
العربية هفنيوم
Armãneashte Hafniumu
asturianu Hafniu
azərbaycan dili Hafnium
български Хафиий
বাংলা হাফনিয়াম
brezhoneg Hafniom
bosanski Hafnij[um]
Byelorussian Гафній
Cebuano Hafnyo
čeština Hafnium
Chuvash Гафни
Cymraeg Hafni
dansk Hafnium
Deutsch Hafnium
Ελληνικά Άφνιο
English Hafnium
esperanto Hafnio
español Hafnio
eesti Hafnium
euskara Hafnioa
فارسی هافنیم
suomi Hafnium
føroyskt Hafnium
français Hafnium
furlan Afni
West-Frysk Hafnium
Gaeilge Haifniam
Gàidhlig Haifniam
galego Hafnio
ગુજરાતી હાફ્નિયમનો
Gaelg Hafnium
Hakka Chinese Kap (鉿)
עברית הפניום
हिन्दी हाफ्नियम
hrvatski Hafnij
magyar Hafnium
հայերեն Հաֆնիում
Indonesia Hafnium
íslenska Hafnín
italiano Hafnio
日本語 ハフニウム
ქართული ჰაფნიუმი
کٲشُر Hafen
қазақ тілі Гафний
한국어 하프늄
Kurdish Hafniyûm
Komi Гафний
kernewek Hafnyum
кыргызча Гафний
Latin Hafnium
Lëtzebuergesch Hafnium
Lombard Àfni
lingála Hafenu
lietuvių Hafnis
latviešu Hafnijs
Mari Гафний
Maori Hafnium
македонски Хафниум
മലയാളം ഹാഫ്നിയം
монгол Гафни
Мокшан Гафни
Bahasa Melayu Hafnium
Malti Ħafnjum, ²Afnju
Nahuatl Hafnio
Nederlands Hafnium
norsk Hafnium
Occitan Afni
ирон Гафний
polski Hafn
português Háfnio
Runasimi Hafniyu
română Hafniu
русский Гафний
slovenčina Hafnium
slovenščina Hafnij
Samoan Hafnimi
Samogitian Hafnis
shqip Hafnium
српски Хафиијум
Southern Sotho Hafniamo
svenska Hafnium
Kiswahili Hafni
தமிழ் ஹப்னியம்
Tajik Гафний
ไทย แฮฟเนียม
Türkçe Hafniyum
ئۇيغۇرچە گافنىي
українська Гафній
o‘zbek Gafniy
Tiếng Việt Hafini
Võro Hafnium
中文

History

Discovered In
1923
Discovered By
Dirk Coster and George Charles von Hevesy
Discovered At
Denmark
Word Origin
From the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning "Copenhagen"