Chromium (Cr)

General Properties

Symbol Cr
Atomic Number 24
Atomic Weight 51.9961
Group
6 (chromium family)
VIA (IUPAC), VIB (CAS)
Solid, Antiferromagnetic, Conductor, Transition Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 4
Block d

Physical Properties

Density 7.19 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 7.23 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.3 angstroms
Covalent Radius 127 pm
Crust Abundance 0.014%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Body centered
Color Silver

Energy

Electronegativity 1.7 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 64.3 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 653 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1590.6 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 2987 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 4743 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 6702 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 8744.9 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 15455 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 17820 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 20190 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 23580 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 26130 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 28750 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 34230 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 37066 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 97510 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 105800 kJ/mol
17th Ionization Energy 114300 kJ/mol
18th Ionization Energy 125300 kJ/mol
19th Ionization Energy 134700 kJ/mol
20th Ionization Energy 144300 kJ/mol
21st Ionization Energy 157700 kJ/mol
22nd Ionization Energy 166090 kJ/mol
23rd Ionization Energy 721870 kJ/mol
24th Ionization Energy 761733 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.449 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 93.7 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States +3,2,6
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 13 1
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿ 
↿ 
↿ 
↿ 
↿ 
4s
↿ 
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Chromium (Cr)
Description
Very hard, crystalline, steel-gray metal. The pure metal has a blue-white color. It is hard, brittle and corrsion-resistant at normal temperatures.
Uses
Used to make stainless steel. It gives the color to rubies and emeralds. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in various percentages yield an incredible variety of the most important metals in modern technology.
Sources
Chromite [Fe,Mg(CrO4)] is its most important mineral. Produced commercially by heating its ore in the presence of silicon or aluminium.
Pronounciation (English)
KROH-mi-em

Translations

Afrikaans Chroom
Aragonese Cromo
العربية كروم
Armãneashte Cromu
asturianu Cromu
azərbaycan dili Xrom
български Хром
বাংলা ক্রোমিয়াম
brezhoneg Krom
bosanski Hrom
Byelorussian Хром
Cebuano Cromo
čeština Chrom
Chuvash Хром
Cymraeg Crom
dansk Chrom, Krom
Deutsch Chrom
Ελληνικά Χρωμιο
English Chromium
esperanto Kromo
español Cromo
eesti Kroom
euskara Kromoa
فارسی کروم
suomi Kromi
føroyskt Krom
français Chrome
furlan Crom
West-Frysk Groom
Gaeilge Cróimiam
Gàidhlig Cròimiam
galego Cromo
ગુજરાતી ક્રોમિયમનો
Gaelg Cromium
Hakka Chinese Kok (鉻)
עברית כרום
हिन्दी क्रोमियम
hrvatski Krom
magyar Króm
հայերեն Քրոմ
Indonesia Krom
íslenska Króm
italiano Cromo
日本語 クロム
ქართული ქრომი
کٲشُر Chróm
қазақ тілі Хром
한국어 크롬, 2크로뮴
Kurdish Krom
Komi Хром
kernewek Cromyum
кыргызча Хром
Latin Chromium
Lëtzebuergesch Chrom
Lombard Cròom
lingála Kolomo
lietuvių Chromas
latviešu Hroms
Mari Хром
Maori Konukita
македонски Хром
മലയാളം ക്രോമിയം
монгол Хром
Мокшан Крома
Bahasa Melayu Kromium, ²Krom
Malti Kromjum, ²Kromu
Nahuatl Tlapāltepoztli
Nederlands Chroom
norsk Krom
Occitan Crom
ирон Хром
polski Chrom
português Crómo
Runasimi Krumu
română Crom
русский Хром
slovenčina Chróm
slovenščina Krom
Samoan Kromimi
Samogitian Chruoms
shqip Krom
српски Хром
Southern Sotho Kheromiamo
svenska Krom
Kiswahili Kromi
தமிழ் குரோமியம்
Tajik Хром
ไทย โครเมียม
Türkçe Krom
ئۇيغۇرچە خروم
українська Хром
o‘zbek Xrom
Tiếng Việt Crom
Võro Kruum
中文

History

Discovered In
1797
Discovered By
Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin
Discovered At
France
Word Origin
From the Greek word "chroma" meaning "colour", named for the many coloured compounds known for chromium.