Silicon (Si)

General Properties

Symbol Si
Atomic Number 14
Atomic Weight 28.0855
Group
14 (carbon family)
IVB (IUPAC), IVA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Semiconductor, Stable, Natural, Metalloid
Period 3
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 2.33 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 12.1 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.32 angstroms
Covalent Radius 111 pm
Crust Abundance 27%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Gray

States

Melting Point 1410.0 °C
Boiling Point 2355.0 °C
Heat of Fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 359.0 kJ/mol

Energy

Electronegativity 1.9 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 133.6 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 780 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1577.1 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 3231.6 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 4355.5 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 16091 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 19805 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 23780 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 29287 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 33878 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 38726 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 45962 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 50502 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 235196 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 257923 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.7 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 148.0 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States ±4
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 4
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿ 
↿ 
 
3d
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Silicon (Si)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Silicon (Si)
Description
Amorphous form is brown power; crystalline form has gray metallic appearance. Seventh most abundant element in the universe. Second most plentiful element in the earths crust.
Uses
Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.
Sources
Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.
Pronounciation (English)
SIL-i-ken

Translations

Afrikaans Silikon (Kiesel †)
Aragonese Silizio
العربية سيلكون
Armãneashte Silitsiumu
Asturian Siliciu
azərbaycan Silisium
български Силиций
বাংলা সিলিকন
brezhoneg Silisiom
bosanski Silicij[um]
Byelorussian Крэмній
Cebuano Siliko
čeština Křemík
Chuvash Кремни
Cymraeg Silici
dansk Silicium
Deutsch Silizium
Ελληνικά Πυριτιο
English Silicon
esperanto Silicio
español Silicio
eesti Räni
euskara Silizioa
فارسی سیلیسیم
suomi Pii
føroyskt Silicium
français Silicium
Friulian Silici
Western Frisian Silisium
Gaeilge Sileacón
Scottish Gaelic Sileacon
galego Silicio
ગુજરાતી સિલિકોન
Gaelg Shillagon
Hakka Si̍t (矽)
עברית צורן
हिंदी सिलिकॉन
hrvatski Silicij
magyar Szilícium
հայերեն Սիլիցիում
Bahasa Indonesia Silikon
íslenska Kísill
italiano Silicio
日本語 ヶィ素
ქართული სიცილიუმი
کٲشُر Krzém
қазақ тілі Кремний
한국어 규소
Kurdish Silisyum
Komi Кремний
kernewek Sylycon
кыргызча Кремний
Latin Silicium
Luxembourgish Silizium
Lombard Silíci
lingála Siliki
lietuvių Silicis
latviešu Silīcijs
Mari Кремний
Maori Takawai
македонски Силициум
മലയാളം സിലിക്കണ്‍
монгол Цахиур
Мокшан Ктаем
Bahasa Melayu Silikon
Malti Silikon, ²Siliċju
Nahuatl Tecpatli
Nederlands Silicium, Kiezel†
norsk Silisium
Occitan Silici
Ossetic Кремний
polski Krzem
português Silício
Quechua Ullayayaq, ²Silisyu
română Siliciu
русский Кремний
slovenčina Kremík
slovenščina Silicij
Samoan Silisimi
Samogitian Sėlėcis
Shqip Silicium
Српски Силицијум
Southern Sotho Silikone
svenska Kisel
Kiswahili Silikoni
தமிழ் சிலிக்கன்
Tajik Силитсий
ไทย ซิลิคอน
Türkçe Silisyum
Uyghur سىلىتسىي
українська Кремній
oʻzbekcha Kremniy
Tiếng Việt Silic
Võro Räni
中文

History

Discovered In
1824
Discovered By
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Discovered At
Sweden
Word Origin
From the Latin word "silicis" meaning "flint"