Scandium (Sc)

General Properties

Symbol Sc
Atomic Number 21
Atomic Weight 44.955912
Group
3 (scandium family)
IIIA (IUPAC), IIIB (CAS)
Solid, Conductor, Transition Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 4
Block d

Physical Properties

Density 2.99 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 15.0 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.62 angstroms
Covalent Radius 144 pm
Crust Abundance 0.0026%
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Color Silver

Energy

Electronegativity 1.4 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 18.1 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 633 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1235.0 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 2388.6 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 7090.6 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 8843 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 10679 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 13310 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 15250 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 17370 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 21726 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 24102 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 66320 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 73010 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 80160 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 89490 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 97400 kJ/mol
17th Ionization Energy 105600 kJ/mol
18th Ionization Energy 117000 kJ/mol
19th Ionization Energy 124270 kJ/mol
20th Ionization Energy 547530 kJ/mol
21st Ionization Energy 582163 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.568 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 15.8 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States 3
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 9 2
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿ 
 
 
 
 
4s
↿⇂
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Scandium (Sc)
Description
Fairly soft, silvery-white metal. Eighth most abundant 'rare earth' found in the earth's crust (5.0 ppm).
Uses
Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandum oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight.
Sources
Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium) and wiikite. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining.
Pronounciation (English)
SKAN-di-em

Translations

Afrikaans Skandium
Aragonese Escandio
العربية سكانديوم
Armãneashte Scandiumu
asturianu Escandiu
azərbaycan dili Skandium
български Скандий
বাংলা স্ক্যান্ডিয়াম
brezhoneg Skandiom
bosanski Skandij[um]
Byelorussian Скандый
Cebuano Eskandyo
čeština Skandium
Chuvash Сканди
Cymraeg Escandi
dansk Scandium, Skandium
Deutsch Skandium
Ελληνικά Σκανdιο
English Scandium
esperanto Skandio
español Escandio
eesti Skandium
euskara Eskandioa
فارسی اسکاندیم
suomi Skandium
føroyskt Skandium
français Scandium
furlan Scandi
West-Frysk Scandium
Gaeilge Scaindiam
Gàidhlig Scaindiam
galego Escandio
ગુજરાતી સ્કૅનડિયમનો
Gaelg Scandjum
Hakka Chinese Khong (鈧)
עברית סקנדיום
हिन्दी स्काण्डियम
hrvatski Skandij
magyar Szkandium
հայերեն Սկանդիում
Indonesia Skandium
íslenska Skandín
italiano Scandio
日本語 スカンジウム
ქართული სკანდიუმი
کٲشُر Skónd
қазақ тілі Скандий
한국어 스칸듐
Kurdish Skandiyûm
Komi Скандий
kernewek Scandyum
кыргызча Скандий
Latin Scandium
Lëtzebuergesch Skandium
Lombard Scandi
lingála Sekandu
lietuvių Skandis
latviešu Skandijs
Mari Скандий
Maori Scandium
македонски Скандиум
മലയാളം സ്കാന്‍ഡിയം
монгол Сканди
Мокшан Сканди
Bahasa Melayu Skandium
Malti Skandju[m]
Nahuatl Escandio
Nederlands Scandium
norsk Scandium
Occitan Escandi
ирон Скандий
polski Skand
português Escândio
Runasimi Iskandyu
română Scandiu
русский Скандий
slovenčina Skandium
slovenščina Skandij
Samoan Skandimi
Samogitian Skandis
shqip Skandium, ²Scandiumi
српски Скандијум
Southern Sotho Skandiamo
svenska Skandium
Kiswahili Skandi
தமிழ் ஸ்கண்டியம்
Tajik Скандий
ไทย สแคนเดียม
Türkçe Skandiyum
ئۇيغۇرچە سكاندىي
українська Скандій
o‘zbek Skandiy
Tiếng Việt Scandi
Võro Skandium
中文

History

Discovered In
1879
Discovered By
Lars Fredrik Nilson
Discovered At
Sweden
Word Origin
From the Latin word "Scandia" meaning "Scandinavia"