Phosphorus (P)

General Properties

Symbol P
Atomic Number 15
Atomic Weight 30.973762
Group
15 (nitrogen family)
VB (IUPAC), VA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Conductor, Stable, Natural, Nonmetal
Period 3
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 1.82 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 17.0 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.28 angstroms
Covalent Radius 106 pm
Crust Abundance 0.099%
Crystal Structure Monoclinic
Color Colorless

States

Melting Point 44.1 °C
Boiling Point 280.0 °C
Heat of Fusion 0.63 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 12.4 kJ/mol

Energy

Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 72 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 1060 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1907 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 2914.1 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 4963.6 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 6273.9 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 21267 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 25431 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 29872 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 35905 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 40950 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 46261 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 54110 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 59024 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 271791 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 296195 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.769 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 0.235 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States -3
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 5
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿ 
↿ 
↿ 
3d
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Phosphorus (P)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Phosphorus (P)
Description
Soft white waxy phosphorescent solid, brownish-red powder or black solid.
Uses
Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.
Sources
Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.
Pronounciation (English)
FOS-fer-es

Translations

Afrikaans Fosfor
Aragonese Fosforo
العربية فوسفور
Armãneashte Fosforu
Asturian Fósforu
azərbaycan Fosfor
български Фосфор
বাংলা ফসফরাস
brezhoneg Fosfor
bosanski Fosfor
Byelorussian Фосфар
Cebuano Posporo
čeština Fosfor, Kostík†
Chuvash Фосфор
Cymraeg Fòsfor
dansk Phosphor, Fosfor
Deutsch Phosphor
Ελληνικά Φωσφορος
English Phosphorus
esperanto Fosforo
español Fósforo
eesti Fosfor
euskara Fosforoa
فارسی فسفر
suomi Fosfori
føroyskt Fosfor
français Phosphore
Friulian Fosfar
Western Frisian Fosfor
Gaeilge Fosfar
Scottish Gaelic Fosfaras
galego Fósforo
ગુજરાતી ફૉસ્ફરસનો
Gaelg Fosfaar
Hakka Lìn (磷)
עברית זרחן
हिंदी फास्फोरस
hrvatski Fosfor
magyar Foszfor
հայերեն Ֆոսֆոր
Bahasa Indonesia Fosfor
íslenska Fosfór
italiano Fosforo
日本語 リン
ქართული ფოსფორი
کٲشُر Fòsfòr
қазақ тілі Фосфор
한국어
Kurdish Fosfor
Komi Фосфор
kernewek Fosforus
кыргызча Фосфор
Latin Phosphorus
Luxembourgish Phosphor
Lombard Fòsfur
lingála Fosofo
lietuvių Fosforas
latviešu Fosfors
Mari Фосфор
Maori Pūtūtae-whetū
македонски Фосфор
മലയാളം ഫോസ്ഫറസ്
монгол Фосфор
Мокшан Паликандур
Bahasa Melayu Fosforus
Malti Fosfru
Nahuatl Fósforo
Nederlands Fosfor
norsk Fosfor
Occitan Fosfòr
Ossetic Фосфор
polski Fosfor
português Fósforo
Quechua Phusphuru
română Fosfor
русский Фосфор
slovenčina Fosfor
slovenščina Fosfor
Samoan Fosforimi
Samogitian Fuosfuors
Shqip Fosfor
Српски Фосфор
Southern Sotho Fosforase
svenska Fosfor
Kiswahili Posfori
தமிழ் பொஸ்பரசு
Tajik Фосфор
ไทย ฟอสฟอรัส
Türkçe Fosfor
Uyghur فوسفور
українська Фосфор
oʻzbekcha Fosfor
Tiếng Việt Photpho
Võro Fosfor
中文

History

Discovered In
1669
Discovered By
Hennig Brand
Discovered At
Germany
Word Origin
From the Greek word "phosphoros" meaning "bringer of light"