Potassium (K)

General Properties

Symbol K
Atomic Number 19
Atomic Weight 39.0983
Group
1 (alkali metals or hydrogen family/lithium family)
IA (IUPAC), IA (CAS)
Solid, Conductor, Alkali Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 4
Block s

Physical Properties

Density 0.86 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 45.3 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 2.35 angstroms
Covalent Radius 196 pm
Crust Abundance 1.5%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Body centered
Color Silver

States

Melting Point 63.25 °C
Boiling Point 760.0 °C
Heat of Fusion 2.33 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 76.9 kJ/mol

Energy

Electronegativity 0.8 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 48.4 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 419 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 3052 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 4420 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 5877 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 7975 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 9590 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 11343 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 14944 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 16963.7 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 48610 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 54490 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 60730 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 68950 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 75900 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 83080 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 93400 kJ/mol
17th Ionization Energy 99710 kJ/mol
18th Ionization Energy 444880 kJ/mol
19th Ionization Energy 476063 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.757 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 102.5 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States 1
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 8 1
Electron Configuration [Ar] 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
 
 
 
 
 
4s
↿ 
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Potassium (K)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Potassium (K)
Description
Soft, waxy, silver-white metal. Eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust (20,900 ppm). Occurs only in compounds.
Uses
Used as potash in making glass & soap. Also as saltpeter, potassium nitrate (KNO3) to make explosives and to color fireworks in mauve. Formerly called kalium (K). Vital to function of nerve and muscle tissures.
Sources
Found in minerals like carnallite [(KMgCl3).6H2O] & sylvite (potassium chloride, KCL). Pure metal is produced by the reaction of hot potassium chloride and sodium vapors in a special retort.
Pronounciation (English)
pe-TASS-i-em

Translations

Afrikaans Kalium
Aragonese Potasio
العربية بوتاسيوم
Armãneashte Caliumu
Asturian Potasiu
azərbaycan Kalium
български Калий
বাংলা পটাসিয়াম
brezhoneg Potasiom
bosanski Kalij[um]
Byelorussian Калій
Cebuano Potasio
čeština Draslík
Chuvash Кали
Cymraeg Potassi
dansk Kalium
Deutsch Kalium
Ελληνικά Καλιο
English Potassium
esperanto Kalio
español Potasio
eesti Kaalium
euskara Potasioa
فارسی پتاسیم
suomi Kalium
føroyskt Kalium
français Potassium
Friulian Potassi
Western Frisian Kalium
Gaeilge Potaisiam
Scottish Gaelic Potaisiam
galego Potasio
ગુજરાતી પોટૅશિયમનો
Gaelg Potashum
Hakka Kap (鉀)
עברית אשלגן
हिंदी पोटैशियम
hrvatski Kalij
magyar Kálium
հայերեն Կալիում
Bahasa Indonesia Kalium
íslenska Kalín
italiano Potassio
日本語 カリウム
ქართული კალიუმი
کٲشُر Kali
қазақ тілі Калий
한국어 칼륨, 2포타슘
Kurdish Qelye
Komi Калий
kernewek Calyum
кыргызча Калий
Latin Kalium
Luxembourgish Kalium
Lombard Putàss
lingála Potasu
lietuvių Kalis
latviešu Kālijs
Mari Калий
Maori Konurehu
македонски Калиум
മലയാളം പൊട്ടാസ്യം
монгол Кали
Мокшан Кали
Bahasa Melayu Kalium
Malti Potassju[m]
Nahuatl Potasio
Nederlands Kalium
norsk Kalium
Occitan Potassi
Ossetic Калий
polski Potas
português Potássio
Quechua Kalyu
română Potasiu, ²Kaliu
русский Калий
slovenčina Draslík
slovenščina Kalij
Samoan Kalimi
Samogitian Kalis
Shqip Kalium
Српски Калијум
Southern Sotho Potassiamo
svenska Kalium
Kiswahili Kali
தமிழ் பொட்டாசியம்
Tajik Калий
ไทย โพแทสเซียม
Türkçe Potasyum
Uyghur كالىي
українська Калій
oʻzbekcha Kaliy
Tiếng Việt Kali
Võro Kaalium
中文

History

Discovered In
1807
Discovered By
Sir Humphrey Davy
Discovered At
England
Word Origin
From the English word "potash" (pot ashes) and the Arabic word "qali" meaning alkali (the origin of the symbol K comes from the Latin word "kalium")