Chlorine (Cl)

General Properties

Symbol Cl
Atomic Number 17
Atomic Weight 35.453
Group
17 (fluorine family)
VIIB (IUPAC), VIIA (CAS)
Gas, Diamagnetic, Insulator, Halogen, Nonmetal, Stable, Natural
Period 3
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 0.00321 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 18.7 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 0.97 angstroms
Covalent Radius 99 pm
Crust Abundance 0.017%
Crystal Structure Orthorhombic
Color Yellow

States

Melting Point -101.0 °C
Boiling Point -34.6 °C
Heat of Fusion 3.21 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 10.2 kJ/mol

Energy

Electronegativity 3.2 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 349 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 1255 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 2298 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 3822 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 5158.6 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 6542 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 9362 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 11018 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 33604 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 38600 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 43961 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 51068 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 57119 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 63363 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 72341 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 78095 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 352994 kJ/mol
17th Ionization Energy 380760 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.48 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 0.0089 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States -1
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 7
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿ 
3d
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Chlorine (Cl)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Chlorine (Cl)
Description
Greenish-yellow, disagreeable gas. Never found in free form in nature.
Uses
Used in water purification, bleaches, acids and many, many other compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).
Sources
Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is its most common compound. Commercial quantities are produced by electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (seawater or brine from salt mines).
Pronounciation (English)
KLOR-een

Translations

Afrikaans Chloor
Aragonese Cloro
العربية كلور
Armãneashte Cloru
Asturian Cloru
azərbaycan Xlor
български Хлор
বাংলা ক্লোরিন
brezhoneg Klor
bosanski Hlor
Byelorussian Хлор
Cebuano Cloro
čeština Chlor
Chuvash Хлор
Cymraeg Clor
dansk Chlor, Klor
Deutsch Chlor
Ελληνικά Χλωριο
English Chlorine
esperanto Kloro
español Cloro
eesti Kloor
euskara Kloroa
فارسی کلر
suomi Kloori
føroyskt Klor
français Chlore
Friulian Clôr
Western Frisian Gloar
Gaeilge Clóirín
Scottish Gaelic Clòirin
galego Cloro
ગુજરાતી ક્લોરિનનો
Gaelg Cloreen
Hakka Liu̍k (氯)
עברית כלור
हिंदी क्लोरीन
hrvatski Klor
magyar Klór
հայերեն Քլոր
Bahasa Indonesia Klor
íslenska Klór
italiano Cloro
日本語 塩素
ქართული ქლორი
کٲشُر Chlor
қазақ тілі Хлор
한국어 염소
Kurdish Klor
Komi Хлор
kernewek Cloryn
кыргызча Хлор
Latin Chlorium
Luxembourgish Chlor
Lombard Clòor
lingála Koloki
lietuvių Chloras
latviešu Hlors
Mari Хлор
Maori Hau māota
македонски Хлор
മലയാളം ക്ലോറിന്‍
монгол Хлор
Мокшан Клора
Bahasa Melayu Klorin, ²Klor
Malti Klorin, ²Kloru
Nahuatl Cloro
Nederlands Chloor
norsk Klor
Occitan Clòr
Ossetic Хлор
polski Chlor
português Cloro
Quechua Kluru
română Clor
русский Хлор
slovenčina Chlór
slovenščina Klor
Samoan Krorimi
Samogitian Chluors
Shqip Hlor, ²Klori
Српски Хлор
Southern Sotho Klorine
svenska Klor
Kiswahili Klorini
தமிழ் குளோரின்
Tajik Хлор
ไทย คลอรีน
Türkçe Klor
Uyghur خلور گازى
українська Хлор
oʻzbekcha Xlor
Tiếng Việt Clo
Võro Kluur
中文

History

Discovered In
1774
Discovered By
Carl William Scheele
Discovered At
Sweden
Word Origin
From the Greek word "chloros" meaning "pale green"